Climate Protection

A major factor of global warming is CO2 emission, which is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. NTS has developed an energy producing system that will satisfy the requirements of 30,000 households (US market) or 70,000 people.
With the application of a 120 GWh power plant using our technology, each NTS crosswind system would avoid the emission of 102,720 tons of CO2, 108.9 tons SO2 equivalent, 68.3 tons Nox, and 3312 tons dust and fuel ash. (source: contaminant calculation by the Federal Association for Wind Energy).

With the global increase in energy demands also come growing demands and challenges made on environmental protection by the energy producers.

Yet adherence to legal provisions and commitment to environmentally conscious conduct alone does not get us there. Creating the parameters that ensure optimal consideration of environmental aspects is equally important. Hence NTS has integrated a sustainability and environmental management framework into its business concept. The Company’s credo proclaims the clear intentions of NTS to integrate climate and environmental protection as key strategic tasks into its business endeavours. Annual audits will ensure that we continually review and improve our processes.

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Evaluation


In quantity CO2 is the most significant greenhouse gas, therefore its measured concentration in the atmosphere is an indicator of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Since 1750 concentration of CO2 in our atmosphere has risen by 36% to a level of 387ppm reached in 2009. Latest available measurements show 405 ppm in 2011 at Mauna Loa Observatory.  This concentration has not been reached during the past 650 million years where it had remained between 180ppm and 300ppm. The current yearly rate of increase is the highest during the last 20,000 years. Global CO2 emissions make up about 75% of the total equivalent greenhouse gasses mostly as a result of burning fossil fuels (see indicator CO2 emissions according to categories). The steady increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has significantly accelerated during the last 10 years compared to the previous decade. While the mean growth rate from 1960 to 2005 was 1.4pmm/yr it reached 1.9pmm/yr during the decade 1996 to 2005. This trend has been proven and documented by readings taken at Mauna Loa, Hawaii since 1958 and at measuring stations of the Umweltbundesamt (UBA) such as that at Schauinsland.

Context


The rising CO2 concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere is the primary cause of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect.

In order to avoid a dangerous acceleration of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect it will be necessary to reduce the global rise in temperature on a long-term basis to about 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This has a 50% chance of being achieved if we can successfully stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere at 450ppm CO2 and equivalents (including the net effect of anthropogenic drive and cooling factors). In order to achieve the goal of 2°C with a probability of 75% it will be necessary to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gasses to below 400ppm CO2 and equivalents. The most accurate estimate of the total concentration of CO2 and equivalents, including the net effect of all anthropogenic drive and cooling factors, like aerosols, is 375ppm in 2005.


In order to reach the 2°C target it will ultimately be required to curtail all further greenhouse emission by between 2015 and 2020 at the latest and then continue to reduce them by a further 50% to reach 1990 levels by 2050.

For a fair load distribution greenhouse emissions in industrial countries must be reduced by 80% by 2050 to reach 1990 levels in order to effectively contribute to the global reduction of CO2 and equivalents to an average of 50% of 1990 levels.

Global climate change during the last 100 years


During the 100 years (1906-2005) the global mean surface temperature rose by 0.74 (+/- 0.18)°C and global warming has increased markedly during the last decade. 11 of the last 12 years are among the 12 warmest recorded years since the international recording of global temperatures began in 1961.
Sea levels are steadily rising and glaciers and ice caps are increasingly melting. Between 1961 and 2003 global sea levels rose annually by about 1.8 (+/-0.5) mm and rose by 3.1 (+/-0.7) mm between 1993 and 2003. Another study by the Guardian shows an increase of 1 degree from 1950 to 2010 (source: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/mar/27/climate-change-model-global-warming).


Climate change affects entire continents and ocean floors. 
The average temperature in Antarctica rose during the last 100 years almost twice as fast as at the equator. Satellite data collected since 1978 documenting the rate of expansion of arctic ice shows that the ice caps have receded by 2.7% (+/-0.6) per decade. During summer the reduction rate even reached 7.4% (+/-2.4).
Observations since 1961 have also shown that the average water temperature of the World’s oceans has risen down to a depth of 3000m. Mountain glaciers and traditional snow cover regions have retreated in the mid hemispheres.
The Greenland ice cover also shows signs of retreating

Expected climate change by 2100


The anthropogenic greenhouse effect causes complex interactive changes in the climatic system to such an extent that only simulations can demonstrate the extent and impact global warming would have in the future. According to different scenarios the following possible outcomes can be expected to occur:

A middle impact scenario estimates a global rise in temperatures of between 1.8°C (+/- 1.1-2.9) and 4°C (+/- 2.4-6.4).
If greenhouse emissions are not reduced and stabilized, the targeted 0.2°C rise over the next 30 years is highly unlikely.
Even with a stabilization of CO2 concentration by 2100, climate change will continue to occur throughout the 21st Century and sea levels will also continue to rise.
A low impact scenario stipulates a rise in sea levels of between 18cm and 38cm and a high impact scenarios demonstrates a rise of between 26cm and 59cm. These scenarios, however, have not yet considered polar ice dynamics and the uncertainties confronting the carbon feedback cycle. Meteorological extremes are expected to occur during the 21st Century with increasing intensity and frequency.
Environmental impact statements on regional climatic changes are more difficult to predict and remain uncertain.

According to the scenario studies the fundamental climate changes prognozed for Europe include:
A mean rise in temperature of 2 – 6.6°C from 1990 to 2100 with the highest increases expected in Southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece) and North Eastern Europe (Finland and Western Russia);
Increasing frequency of hot summers especially in Southern Europe;
Winter periods will continue to warm up faster than summer periods except for Southern Europe;
A broad increase in rainfall of 1-2% per decade in North Eastern Europe with a possibly simultaneous decrease in rainfall in Southern Europe by up to 1% per decade. During summer the climate differences between Northern and Southern Europe are distinctively visible (North Eastern Europe: up to 2% per decade, Southern Europe: up to –5% per decade).

For Germany, the regional climate models of the UBA (Umweltbundesamt) are used to estimate the likelihood of climate change. The following eventualities can be deduced for climate development in Germany by 2100:

A rise in temperatures is highly likely. According to calculations from the different scenarios compared to levels recorded between 1961 and 1990 temperatures will rise 2-3% by 2100.
The simulations indicate only minor changes in annual rainfall, though “rainfall during summer periods are likely to decrease significantly”

(source: www.umweltbundesamt-daten-zur-umwelt.de).

Unfortunately, many people are still convinced that “a little warmer will do no harm.” What is even more unfortunate is that people don’t understand that warmer means more intense.
It is not just a matter of arctic ice melting and vast land masses virtually “sinking”.
A much more disturbing factor is the expected fluctuation in atmospheric temperature. The higher the temperature fluctuations the more severe wind storms will be in order to equilibriate temperatures between the equator and the arctic poles. According to statistics from Proclim the intensity of turbulent storms between 1950 and 2000 has more than doubled from approximately 0.4 - >0.8 based on the PDI (Power Dissipation Index).

It is not just the intensity we should worry about but also the frequency. Statistically, the mean number storms has risen by 500% between 1970 and 2006 ( refer diagram. Source: UBA ).

All that may still leave some people unmoved but lets consider the costs. Statistics from Allianz (source: http://www.bcm-news.de/wp-content/uploads/allianz-rising-costs-of-disaster.jpg) indicate that the costs of environmental catastrophes, which we are all liable for, have risen by 1500% since 1970 from approximately 2 billion Euros to approximately 30 billion Euros in 2010 and are expected to be 40 billion Euros in 2019.